Male and female protesters rallied through Ramallah's streets, chanting that a third intifada, or uprising, would restore the dignity of the Palestinian cause.
They called on Palestinian factions to resume military activities and to unite in resistance against Israel's occupation.
"Military action is the shortest route to end occupation," they chanted.
The protesters say they are part of a group "Tamarod," Arabic for rebellion.
"If you want a third intifada to break, you have to rebel against the Palestinian reality which the current leadership brought due to their disputes and different trends," the group wrote on its Facebook page.
It is not clear if the group has any affiliation to the Egyptian Tamarod movement, a grassroots campaign which called the protests leading to the army's ouster of President Mohamed Mursi on Wednesday.