But however dangerous any idea of endangering the Dome of the Rock or the Al Aqsa Mosque might be to world peace, the Jews are not the problem in Jerusalem. That’s because the dispute in the city isn’t really so much about who controls the Temple Mount but the Muslim effort to deny the Jewish history that is literally under their feet. Were it just a question of sharing sacred space, reasonable compromises that would give full Muslim autonomy over their holy sites while allowing Jewish prayer at the spiritual center of Judaism would be possible since Jewish extremists who want to evict Islam from the place are a tiny minority. Yet as long as the official position of both the Muslim Wakf religious authority, which has been allowed by Israel to govern the place since the 1967 Six-Day War, and the Palestinian Authority is that the Temples never existed and that Jews have no rights to their ancient capital, that will constitute the real obstacle to peace.
At the heart of this conundrum is an error in Times Jerusalem Bureau chief Jodi Rudoren’s story. In an effort to give some historical background to the dispute, she writes the following:
In 2000, a visit by Ariel Sharon, then Israel’s opposition leader, accompanied by 1,000 police officers, prompted a violent outbreak and, many argue, set off the second intifada.Many may argue that, but it is a flat-out lie. As figures within the Palestinian Authority have long since publicly admitted, the intifada was planned by then leader Yasir Arafat long before Sharon took a stroll on the site of the Temples around the Jewish New Year. The intifada was a deliberate strategy in which Arafat answered Israel’s offer of an independent Palestinian state in almost all of the West Bank, Gaza, and a share of Jerusalem that would have included the Temple Mount. The terrorist war of attrition was intended to beat down the Israelis and force them and the United States to offer even more concessions without forcing the Palestinians to recognize the legitimacy of the Jewish state no matter where its borders were drawn. Sharon’s visit was merely a pretext that has long since been debunked.
Rudoren deserves to be roasted for passing along this piece of propaganda without even noting the proof to the contrary. But the problem here is more than just an error that shows the way she tends to swallow Palestinian lies hook, line, and sinker. That’s because the significance of the Sharon story lies in the way, Palestinian leaders have used the Temple Mount for generations to gin up hate against Israelis.
It bears pointing out that almost from the very beginning of the Zionist enterprise, those seeking to incite an Arab population that might regard the economic growth that came with the influx of immigrants as a good thing used the mosques on the Mount to whip up anti-Jewish sentiment. The pretext for the 1929 riots in which Jews were attacked across the country and the ancient community of Hebron was wiped out in a pogrom was a false rumor about the mosques being attacked. Arafat used the same theme to gain support for his otherwise inexplicable decision to tank the Palestinian economy in his terrorist war. Similarly, inflammatory sermons given in the mosques have often led to Muslim worshippers there raining down rocks on the Jewish worshippers in the Western Wall plaza below.
Israelis can argue about whether restoring even a minimal Jewish presence on the Temple Mount is wise. Some Orthodox authorities have always said that due to doubt about the presence of the Temple’s most sacred precincts no Jew should step foot on the plateau, although that is a point that seems less salient due to recent archeological discoveries. Others believe that any effort to contest Muslim ownership of the site converts a territorial dispute into a religious or spiritual one and should be avoided at all costs.
But, like so many internal Jewish and Israeli debates, these arguments miss the point about Arab opinion. As with other sacred sites to which Muslims lay claim, their position is not one in which they are prepared to share or guarantee equal access. The Muslim view of the Temple Mount is not one in which competing claims can be recognized, let alone respected. They want it Jew-free, the same way they envision a Palestinian state or those areas of Jerusalem which they say must be their capital.
It is in that same spirit that the Wakf has committed what many respected Israeli archeologists consider a program of vandalism on the Mount with unknown quantities of antiquities being trashed by their building program. Since they recognize no Jewish claim or even the history of the place, they have continued to act in this manner with, I might add, hardly a peep from the international community.
Thus while many friends of Israel will read Rudoren’s article and shake their heads about Israeli foolishness, the real story in Jerusalem remains the Palestinians’ unshakable determination to extinguish Jewish history as part of their effort to delegitimize the Jewish state. In the face of their intransigence and the fact that such intolerance is mainstream Palestinian opinion rather than the view of a few extremists, the desire of many Jews to visit a place that is the historic center of their faith (the Western Wall is, after all, merely the vestige of the Temple’s outer enclosure) doesn’t seem quite so crazy.
Why it matters that Jews are standing on the Temple Mount
Trailed by a group of religious Jews, an Israeli police escort, and a Muslim community representative, Mr. Glick responds in Hebrew, “Shalom – peace to you all.”
Behind him rise the two sites that make Jerusalem the third-holiest city in Islam: the Al-Aqsa mosque and the golden Dome of the Rock, a Muslim shrine commemorating the prophet Mohammed's ascension to heaven. It is built on the spot where Jews believe the very presence of God once rested in the Jewish temple. This is considered the holiest place in Judaism, yet it has been largely off-limits to Jewish worshipers because of concerns that range from violating Jewish law to provoking riots.
The Islamic waqf, which governs the Haram al-Sharif, endorses the idea of Jerusalem as a “jewel of peace” for Muslim, Christians, and Jews, and are happy to welcome Jews as tourists to the Noble Sanctuary, but they are pressuring Israeli police to prevent access to the area for Jews with religious or political motivations.
“We are asking the Israeli police not to provide permission for the huge numbers of Jews who visit and especially to bar the extreme Jews from entering the Noble Sanctuary,” says Sheikh Azzam al-Khatib, director of the waqf, in between a flurry of phone calls about the rising tensions amid the Jewish High Holidays. “These extreme Jews … are trying to create new facts on the ground.”
Muslim concerns over the Temple Mount come amid rising Arab frustration with the "Judaization" of Jerusalem, where Jewish groups promoting (and funding) a greater Jewish presence have increasingly acquired properties in sensitive areas including the Muslim quarter of the Old City and predominantly Arab neighborhoods of East Jerusalem.
Among Muslims’ greatest concerns is that Jews will try to destroy the Muslim holy sites in order to rebuild their temple. In 1984, Yehuda Etzion was imprisoned for a plot to destroy the Dome of the Rock, and in 1991, Israeli police intervened to thwart a plan by the Temple Mount Faithful to airlift a 5-ton cornerstone for the new temple.
“If the Jews and the Israelis destroy the Noble Sanctuary, then they would have actually destroyed part of the holy Quran and destroyed part of the Muslim belief,” says Sheikh al-Khatib. “If that were to happen, then Muslims all over the world would conduct jihad.”
Why there's a rise in numbersIsraeli general Moshe Dayan captured the Temple Mount in the 1967 war, but instead of restoring it to Jewish control for the first time in nearly 2,000 years, he let Muslims retain control. Some saw it as the largely secular Israeli leadership’s attempt to appease Muslims.
Though Israeli courts have since supported Jews’ right to pray on the Temple Mount, Israeli police have enforced a ban on it to avoid provoking the Muslim community. But as Israel’s religious Jews have gained influence they have pushed back against the restrictions.
“[Muslims] can play soccer over there, … they can have picnics, they can urinate on the [ground], but I can’t say a word of prayer? Does that sound reasonable?” asks Glick, gesturing back to the compound where he sometimes holds a cellphone up to his ear while reciting a chapter of Psalms in order to disguise his prayer. “The only place in the world where a Jew cannot pray is over there.”
Glick, who heads the Temple Mount Heritage Foundation and supports right-wing lawmakers' efforts to restore Israeli sovereignty over the Temple Mount, has been coming up here for 25 years – first alone, and now with groups of up to 100 or more. Last year 12,000 Jews visited, he says, and this year he hopes it will be double or triple that, solidifying the connection between the Jewish people and the Temple Mount. Israeli police statistics, though more conservative, support the general trend and indicate that Jewish visits this year will outpace previous years.
To be sure, the Chief Rabbinate of Israel still has a sign posted at the entrance of the Temple Mount forbidding Jews to visit the area. Since no one knows the exact location of the Temple or the inner sanctuary that was off-limits for all but a priestly elite, and Jewish law requires a level of ritual purity to enter the area that some say is unattainable at present, many Jews have long steered clear of the Temple Mount so as not to inadvertently commit an infraction of such religious precepts.
But that is changing.
“Today as archaeological findings become firmer, and there’s more awareness of realities on ground, the number of rabbis who are taking that stand that there’s no reason Jews should not be allowed to pray in the holiest place in the world is growing,” says Jeffrey Woolf, a rabbi and senior lecturer in the Talmud department of Bar Ilan University, who also credits growing spirituality in Jewish society for the surge in interest. “It’s true that God is everywhere, but His presence is experienced more intensely, tangibly, and experientially on the Temple Mount.”
Spiritual rebuilding needed firstAll that remains today of the Second Temple is the western wall, which has become a major focal point for Jewish prayer, attracting millions of Jews each year.
Glick would like to see more and more of those Jews visiting the Temple Mount and praying side by side with Muslims and Christians. “My dream is to be able to hug a person from Saudi Arabia and a person from Spain, and together all pray together to God,” says Glick.
But some worry that could spark a third intifada; the Second Intifada broke out in 2000 after a controversial visit by Israeli leader Ariel Sharon, with more than 1,000 Israeli police and several Israeli lawmakers in tow, in what his spokesman later described as a bid to show Palestinians that "Jerusalem was not for sale."
Jewish tradition teaches that the house of God shall one day be a house of prayer for all nations, but some say the Jewish people need to get their own house in order first.
The destruction of the First and Second Temples reflected the Jews' own inner spiritual state, and thus rebuilding the temple requires first and foremost a spiritual rebuilding individually and societally, says Rabbi Dovid Ben Meir, who teaches in a religious Zionist yeshiva in Eli.
"If we try to physically go up to the Temple Mount and walk in certain areas, even if we’re within the limitations prescribed by Jewish law … it won’t bring us any closer to an understanding of what the temple actually means," he says. "We’ll satisfy ourselves with going up barefoot and saying a few Psalms and feeling as if we’re on a higher spiritual level, when the truth is what we really have to be striving for is to bring ourselves and all of humanity to an entirely higher spiritual, psychological sphere of living."