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Tuesday, April 29, 2014
Aggression - The Illegal Use of Force
29 April 2014 | Eli E. Hertz
UN Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338 have never branded Israel as an occupier or aggressor. As a matter of fact, the UN rejected every draft resolution that attempted to brand Israel as aggressor and those calling on Israel to withdraw from all the territories.
wording of UN Resolutions 242 and 338 clearly reflect the contention
that none of the territories were occupied territories taken by force in
an unjust war.
the Arabs were clearly the aggressors, nowhere in UN Security Council
Resolutions 242 or 338 – the cornerstones of a peace settlement – is
Israel branded as an invader or occupier of the Territories.
is imperative to view Resolution 242, as finally approved, in
distinction to draft resolutions that were more adamant of Israel and
which none received the needed votes to become effective:
introduced a draft resolution which called for Israel to withdraw
behind the lines established in the General Armistice Agreements of
draft resolution introduced by the Latin-American Nations, required
Israel to withdraw “from all the territories occupied ...”
Soviet draft resolution on 18th June, 1967 called Israel actions “…
previously prepared aggression …” was defeated on 4 July 1967, by 36
votes in favor, 57 against, and 23 abstentions.
same day, an Albanian draft resolution branding Israel actions
“aggression” and “occupation” was defeated by 22 votes in favor, 71
against, and 27 abstentions.
Eugene Rostow, then U.S. Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs,
went on record in 1991 to make this clear. He testified: “Resolution
242, which as undersecretary of state for political affairs between 1966
and 1969 I helped produce, calls on the parties to make peace and
allows Israel to administer the territories it occupied in 1967 until “a
just and lasting peace in the Middle East” is achieved. When such a
peace is made, Israel is required to withdraw its armed forces ‘from
territories’ it occupied during the Six-Day War - not from ‘the’
territories nor from ‘all’ the territories, but from some of the
territories, which included the Sinai Desert, the West Bank, the Golan
Heights, East Jerusalem, and the Gaza Strip.”
text of these drafts indicates that the UN undoubtedly debated and
considered the scope of Israel's withdrawal, and ultimately rejected a
return to the 1949 Armistice lines.